ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research (2017-02-01)

Cost analysis of facial injury treatment in two university hospitals in Malaysia: a prospective study

  • Saperi BS,
  • Ramli R,
  • Ahmed Z,
  • Muhd Nur A,
  • Ibrahim MI,
  • Rashdi MF,
  • Nordin R,
  • Rahman NA,
  • Yusoff A,
  • Nazimi AJ,
  • Abdul Rahman R,
  • Abdul Razak N,
  • Mohamed N

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 9
pp. 107 – 113


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Bin Sulong Saperi,1 Roszalina Ramli,2 Zafar Ahmed,1 Amrizal Muhd Nur,1 Mohd Ismail Ibrahim,3 Muhd Fazlynizam Rashdi,2 Rifqah Nordin,2 Normastura Abd Rahman,4 Azizah Yusoff,4 Abd Jabar Nazimi,2 Roselinda Abdul Rahman,4 Noorhayati Abdul Razak,4 Norlen Mohamed 5 1International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, 3Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 4School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 5Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Objective: Facial injury (FI) may occur in isolation or in association with injuries to other parts of the body (facial and other injury [FOI]). The objective of this study was to determine the direct treatment costs incurred during the management of facial trauma. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study on treatment cost for FIs and FOIs due to road-traffic crashes in two university hospitals in Malaysia was conducted from July 2010 to June 2011. The patients were recruited from emergency departments and reviewed after 6 months from the date of initial treatment. Direct cost analysis, comparison of cost and length of hospital stay, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were performed. Results: A total of 190 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 83 (43.7%) had FI only, and 107 (56.3%) had FOI. The mean ISS was 5.4. The mean length of stay and costs for patients with FI only were 5.8 days with a total cost of US$1,261.96, whereas patients with FOI were admitted for 7.8 days with a total cost of US$1,716.47. Costs doubled if the treatment was performed under general anesthesia compared to local anesthesia. Conclusion: Treatment of FI and FOI imposes a financial burden on the health care system in Malaysia. Keywords: facial injury, road traffic crashes, cost analysis, university hospitals, Malaysia