International Journal of General Medicine (Nov 2021)

Trends in Under-5 Mortality Rates and Their Associations with Socioeconomic Factors Among Countries Participating in the Belt and Road Initiative: A Panel Data Analysis

  • Bai R,
  • Dong W,
  • Liu J,
  • Peng Q,
  • Lyu J

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 14
pp. 7763 – 7773


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Ruhai Bai,1 Wanyue Dong,2 Jinli Liu,3 Qiao Peng,3 Jun Lyu4 1School of Public Affairs, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Health Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Clinical Research, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Jun LyuDepartment of Clinical Research, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, No. 601, West Huangpu Avenue, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail [email protected]: The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) provided a platform to promote trade and economic collaboration, with health promotion also being an important component. This study examined the burden of the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) among BRI countries and studied the impact of socioeconomic development on the U5MR.Patients and Methods: Data were collected from 137 BRI countries for the period 2000– 2018. The temporal changes in the U5MR and the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) were used to assess the U5MR burden. A quantile fixed-effects model was used to access the associations between socioeconomic factors and the U5MR.Results: The U5MR varied widely among the 137 analyzed countries in 2018, being highest in Somalia (121.5 per 1000) and lowest in Slovenia (2.1 per 1000). The decreasing trend in U5MR was largest in Montenegro (EAPC = – 9.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = – 10.2 to – 9.0), while the increasing trend was largest in Dominica (EAPC = 6.0, 95% CI = 5.3 to 6.7). Countries with higher U5MRs in 2000 experienced more rapid decreases in the U5MR from 2000 to 2018. The influence of socioeconomic factors on U5MR was related to the distribution of U5MR.Conclusion: The U5MR remains a major public-health issue in some BRI countries. Improving the economic situation will benefit child health in BRI countries in the long run.Keywords: Belt and Road, under-five mortality rate, socioeconomic, economic factors