International Journal of Molecular Sciences (Dec 2020)

The Extraction Solvent Influences the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Jakyakgamcho-Tang in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages and Mice with Gouty Arthritis

  • Yun Mi Lee,
  • Dong-Seon Kim

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 21, no. 24
p. 9748


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Jakyakgamcho-Tang (JGT) is a traditional medicine used to treat muscular tension, spasm, and pain. Several studies have reported its clinical use as an anti-inflammatory and in gynaecological treatment. This study aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of JGT according to extraction solvent, water (JGTW) and 30% EtOH (JGTE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)—stimulated macrophages and in mice with monosodium urate (MSU)—induced gouty arthritis. We evaluated the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines and the expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. We also examined oedema, pain, and inflammation in MSU-induced mice by measuring affected hind paw swelling, weight-bearing, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, JGTW and JGTE significantly decreased prostaglandin (PG) E2(PGE2) production via suppressing COX-2 expression and cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-6. Only JGTE reduced the production of NO and cytokines and the mRNA levels of iNOS and cytokines. In MSU-induced mice, JGTE and JGTW efficiently decreased paw swelling and attenuated joint pain. JGTE (200 and 300 mg/kg) effectively suppressed inflammation by downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6) and MPO activity, which were only slightly reduced by JGTW. Our data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of JGT in macrophage and gouty arthritis animal models and show that JGTE is more effective than JGTW at lower concentrations.