The article focuses on some aspects of L.S. Vygotsky’s early works, which are interpreted as the under- lying basis of the cultural-historical theory and might be applied while conducting research in the framework of this scientific school. The concepts of “drama”, “pereghivanie” and “reflective communication” as well as their role in applying experimental-genetic method in research are analysed. Results of a research project “Drama and exclusion”, conducted in the UK in 2014—2015 on the basis of two arts-based organisations working with young people with various kinds of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, are discussed. A case-study with a group of children at risk of school exclusion is given as an example of applying a “dramatic event” as a cultural tool for reorganising the social situation of development.