Известия высших учебных заведений: Прикладная нелинейная динамика (Jan 2023)
Approach to nonlinearity parameter in liquids calculation based on the scaling theory of thermodynamic fluctuations
The nonlinearity parameter B/A is a characteristic of liquids and soft matter, which gains growing attention due to its sensibility to the composition of materials. This makes it a prospective indicator for nondestructive testing applications based on the ultrasound sounding suitable for a variety of applications from physic chemistry to biomedical studies. At the same time, the thermodynamic definition of the nonlinearity parameter requires extensive measurements at elevated pressures that are not always available; in addition, there are known certain contradiction of such data with the data obtained by methods of nonlinear acoustics. Objective. In this work, we consider a recently proposed approach to the prediction of the speed of sound at high pressures, which uses the property of invariance of the reduced pressure fluctuations and the data obtained at normal ambient pressure only. The method generalises the classic Nomoto model, which however gives only a qualitative picture, and results in the quantitative correspondence to the experimental values within their range of uncertainty. Methods. Analytical methods of the theory of thermodynamic fluctuations applied to the parameters of equations of nonlinear acoustics as well as numerical simulation in the COMSOL Multiphysics® environment. Results. Expressions for calculating the nonlinearity parameter with acceptable accuracy were obtained using thermodynamic data obtained only at atmospheric pressure. Numerical calculations were performed for toluene. In addition, the discrepancy between values of the nonlinear parameter obtained via the thermodynamic and nonlinear acoustic routes is analysed based on the numerical solution of the Westervelt equation; it is revealed that this deviation emerges when the effects of absorption of finite-amplitude waves were not properly taken into account.