Abstract. The article presents the research results on the study of the severity of weeds associated with the accumulation and removal from the soil of the main plant nutrients under different methods of basic soil cultivation and the use of herbicides. It has been established that the long-term use of plowing and non-inversion tillage leads to a differentiation of the arable layer in terms of the content of weed seeds. With non-inversion tillage the weed seeds are localized, to a greater extent, in the upper layer, which requires increased protection measures for crops from weed vegetation. The presented scientific information on the quantitative-species composition of weeds, which are formed with different methods of basic soil cultivation, and the data on the amount of nutrients accumulated by individual species of weed plants, makes it possible, under specific conditions, to make the necessary adjustments to the fertilizer system and weed control measures.