Journal of Ginseng Research (2018-07-01)

Micro-/nano-sized delivery systems of ginsenosides for improved systemic bioavailability

  • Hyeongmin Kim,
  • Jong Hyuk Lee,
  • Jee Eun Kim,
  • Young Su Kim,
  • Choong Ho Ryu,
  • Hong Joo Lee,
  • Hye Min Kim,
  • Hyojin Jeon,
  • Hyo-Joong Won,
  • Ji-Yun Lee,
  • Jaehwi Lee

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 42, no. 3
pp. 361 – 369


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Ginsenosides, dammarane-type triterpene saponins obtained from ginseng, have been used as a natural medicine for many years in the Orient due to their various pharmacological activities. However, the therapeutic potential of ginsenosides has been largely limited by the low bioavailability of the natural products caused mainly by low aqueous solubility, poor biomembrane permeability, instability in the gastrointestinal tract, and extensive metabolism in the body. To enhance the bioavailability of ginsenosides, diverse micro-/nano-sized delivery systems such as emulsions, polymeric particles, and vesicular systems have been investigated. The delivery systems improved the bioavailability of ginsenosides by enhancing solubility, permeability, and stability of the natural products. This mini-review aims to provide comprehensive information on the micro-/nano-sized delivery systems for increasing the bioavailability of ginsenosides, which may be helpful for designing better delivery systems to maximize the versatile therapeutic potential of ginsenosides. Keywords: bioavailability, delivery system, ginsenosides, permeability, solubility