The article’s aim is to consider the history of the lexeme обаяние in the history of the Russian language. The synchronous-diachronic method and the method of component analysis allow to review the derivatives from the point of view of the integral-differential semantic features. On the basis of the study, motivational links were revealed, lexemes-synonyms were presented, the presence of a dialectal word-formation nest with the top -баять- was established. The article also notes cases of the development of the additional meanings of the word обаяние and its derivatives. The author of the article proposed an extended interpretation of the lexeme обаяние in modern Russian. The theoretical and practical significance of the research lies in the compilation of these lexicographic sources and the complex description of the semantic structure of the word обаяние. The article may be addressed to university teachers of the in the preparation of lectures and practical exercises in lexicology and etymology, school teachers to improve the spelling literacy of pupils, as well as to anyone, who is interested in the history of the Russian language.