Microglia-associated neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. Microglial activation and polarization, and the inflammatory response mediated by these cells play important roles in the development, progression and outcome of brain injury after ischemic stroke. Currently, there is no effective strategy for treating ischemic stroke in clinical practice. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the role and regulation of microglia in stroke. In this review, we discuss the involvement of microglia in the neuroinflammatory process in ischemic stroke, with the aim of providing a better understanding of the relationship between ischemic stroke and microglia.