The large territory, including Mongolia and Russian Siberia, discussed in the article, has similarities in physical, geographical, and socio-demographic parameters, as well as the attitude to them as "resource colonies". But these Siberian and Mongolian components differ significantly politically, which affects their institutional and managerial characteristics, which in turn affects the process of forming the structure of territorial nature protection. The article analyses the existing systems of protected areas in Siberia and Mongolia, their structure, and legislative bases. In this study, Siberia is considered within the boundaries of the natural geographic territory between the Urals and the Far East and includes 14 regions of Russia. Of these, the Siberian Federal District includes the Altai Republic, Altai Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Tomsk Oblast, Tuva Republic, Khakassia Republic. The Far Eastern Federal District includes the Buryatia Republic, the Trans-Baikal Krai, Sakha (Yakutia) Republic; the Tyumen Oblast is located in the Ural Federal District.