The article deals with the aging of the Russian population as a key political problem that needs to be studied. The process of population aging in a series of demographic problems is analyzed. The consequences of aging of the population in Russia for political processes are singled out and described. The author comes to the conclusion that the aging of the population has a significant impact on the socio-economic and political tensions in society and creates a significant burden on the social security system. Another negative consequence of aging is the reduction of the state’s military-mobilization potential, which in turn jeopardizes the national security in the Russian Federation.