Mathematics (Dec 2021)
Mathematical Description and Laboratory Study of Electrophysical Methods of Localization of Geodeformational Changes during the Control of the Railway Roadbed
Currently, the load on railway tracks is increasing due to the increase in freight traffic. Accordingly, more and more serious requirements are being imposed on the reliability of the roadbed, which means that studies of methods for monitoring the integrity of the railway roadbed are relevant. The article provides a mathematical substantiation of the possibility of using seismoelectric and phasemetric methods of geoelectric control of the roadbed of railway tracks in order to identify defects and deformations at an early stage of their occurrence. The methods of laboratory modeling of the natural–technical system “railway track” are considered in order to assess the prospects of using the presented methods. The results of laboratory studies are presented, which have shown their high efficiency in registering a weak useful electrical signal caused by seismoacoustic effects against the background of high-level external industrial and natural interference. In the course of laboratory modeling, it was found that on the amplitude spectra of the output electrical signals of the investigated geological medium in the presence of an elastic harmonic action with a frequency of 70 Hz, the frequency of a harmonic electrical signal with a frequency of 40 Hz is observed. In laboratory modeling, phase images were obtained for the receiving line when simulating the process of sinking the soil base of the railway bed, confirming the presence of a transient process that causes a shift in the initial phase of the signal Δφ = 40° by ~45° (Δφ’ = 85°), which allows detection of the initial stage of failure formation.