Nature Environment and Pollution Technology (Mar 2023)

Retention Behaviour of Heavy Metals from Industrial Sludge Amended with Admixtures to Use Them as Liners for Landfill Facilities

  • S. S. S. Saranya, S. N. Maya Naik and Shankara

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 22, no. 1
pp. 109 – 118


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The solidification of contaminants within the soil/waste has proved to be a versatile technique to de-contaminate them and make them usable for several applications. In this method, the development of binder provisions leads to the conversion of the environmentally unstable condition of waste materials into a nearly stable material. Further, these materials pose a minimum threat that can be absorbed into the environment. Normally lime/cement and other pozzolanic materials are used as binder materials. In this work, it is proposed to use the efficiency of binding fly ash to improve the unconfined compressive strength (UCC) of soils, particularly during the curing period. This is because improvement in strength is a reflection of the improvement of bonding soil particles. Fly ash as the main source material, in addition to a minor proportion of cement and lime, is used to determine the strength. UCC test results revealed that as the percentage of fly ash increases there is an increase in compressive strength. It is also observed that with an increase in lime content and an increase in cement content, the UCC strength also increases. The strength in cement-stabilized compacted specimens is more compared to lime-stabilized mixtures. To confirm that the improvement in strength is related to the solidification of contaminated metals, particularly for soils containing copper and chromium, the stabilized mixture is tested for the leaching of these metals. Leaching tests were conducted on various stabilized mixtures at different curing periods. The leachate was examined for metal ion concentration using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from different proportions of soil matrix revealed that with an increase in lime or cement percentage, a decrease in leachability is observed. It is found that the leaching of heavy metals from cement-stabilized soils was lower than in lime mixture combinations. However, minimum strength improves the solidification and retention of heavy metals effectively.