The article is devoted to the main milestones of the land policy of Russia and the dynamics of land relations in the context of the historical development of the Russian state: from Ancient Russia till the USSR. Particular attention is paid to the aspects of land ownership formation during the reforms of 1861 and 1864. The analysis of the specifics of land policy implemented at various stages of Russian history was carried out through the prism of changes in political traditions and public relations. In particular, such components as the purpose of land policy, the subject composition of land relations, the specifics of social relations, features of government, etc. are considered. The research of the land policy and land relations in the context of historical and political analysis allows a more detailed understanding of the specifics and dynamics of these processes. It will allow reaching a qualitatively new level of theoretical generalizations in the long term. The result of the analysis indicates that it is necessary to use the political and economic experience accumulated in the current conditions, which should contribute to obtaining objective ideas about the development and optimization of land relations in the conditions of modern Russia. At the same time, it is important to assess the relationship between the purpose of land policy and the nature of land relations.