The article is devoted to the identification of conceptually identical perceptions of musical time in the cultures of India and Indonesia. The paper considers tala, the Indian category of time, in the context of structuring the parameters of musical compositions in Indian art. Gamelans (Indonesian ensembles of musical instruments) are described in detail as well as the basic principles of organizing musical material in the compositions they perform. The aim of the work is to compare the patterns of perception of the category of time in the cultures of India and Indonesia. The research methodology is based on the principles of an integrated approach that considers the musical traditions of these countries from theoretical and historical-cultural positions. In the process of working on this article, the key role was played by the experience of studying Indian and Indonesian cultures obtained by the authors during scientific internships in India and Indonesia (T.V. Kartashova – institute Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra in 2004–2006 and in 2009 (New-Delhi, India); V.U. Antipova studied at the Indonesian Institute of Arts in Yogyakarta under the Darmasiswa Indonesian Scholarship program in the 2017–2018 academic year). The result of the study is the identification of the cyclical nature of musical time in the art of India and Indonesia. It is concluded that in the coordinate systems of different civilizations there are certain intersection points, and often they appear at a conceptual level. The identification of common interpretations of various categories makes it possible to comprehend deep intercivilizational ties, which makes it possible to identify the relatedness of the basics of world understanding in the cultures of South and Southeast Asia.