Microbiology Spectrum (Jun 2022)

Isolation and Identification of Two Clinical Strains of the Novel Genotype Enterovirus E5 in China

  • Chengyuan Ji,
  • Yao Zhang,
  • Ruini Sun,
  • Zihao Pan,
  • Jiale Ma,
  • Huochun Yao

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10, no. 3


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ABSTRACT Most enterovirus (EV) infections are subclinical but, occasionally, can cause severe and potentially fatal diseases in humans and animals. Currently, EVs are divided into 12 types (A to L) based on phylogenetic analysis and on their natural hosts. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) is an essential member of the enterovirus belonging to the types E and F that attacks cattle as its natural host and causes clinical disorders in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. In 2020, several dairy farms in China experienced cow mortality with acute clinical signs, including fever, and diarrhea. In these cases, GX20-1 and JS20-1 virus strains were isolated and sequenced. Cellular adaptation of these two strains showed efficient replications on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells and produced a significant cytopathogenic effect (CPE). However, on baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and Vero cells, viral replication was inefficient and did not produce CPE. As noted in comparative genomics analysis, these two strains showed distant evolutionary relationships with the well-known E1 to E4 and F1 to F4 subtypes of BEV and high sequence identities with the candidate type Enterovirus E5, a novel genotype recently identified based on the genomic data of three strains, including the GX20-1 and JS20-1 strains. This study provides the first evidence of a novel genotype bovine enterovirus infection in Chinese cattle herds, a potential threat to the cattle industry in China. IMPORTANCE Bovine enterovirus (BEV) is a cattle-infecting pathogen. This study is the first report of natural infection of a novel genotype of enterovirus in herds of cattle in China. The homology of the novel enterovirus is far different from the structural protein of other enteroviruses and has different cellular adaptations. This study provides a reference for the biological characteristics and prevalence of the novel enterovirus in Chinese cattle populations.