Bioengineering (Sep 2020)

Impact of Coping Veneering Techniques on the Survival of Implant-Supported Zirconia-Based-Crowns Cemented to Hybrid-Abutments: An-In-Vitro Study

  • Shareen Hayel Elshiyab,
  • Noor Nawafleh,
  • Usman Khan,
  • Andreas Öchsner,
  • Roy George

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 7, no. 4
p. 117


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The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of veneering technique (hand-layering vs. milling) on the fracture resistance of bi-layer implant-supported zirconia-based hybrid-abutment crowns. Mandibular molar copings were anatomically designed and milled. Copings were then veneered by hand-layering (HL) (n = 20) and milling using the Cad-On technique (LD) (n = 20). Crowns were cemented to zirconia hybrid-abutments. Ten samples of each group acted as a control while the remaining ten samples were subjected to fatigue in a chewing simulator. Crowns were loaded between 50 and 100 N for 1.2 million cycles under simultaneous temperature fluctuation between 5 and 55 °C. Crowns were then subjected to static load a to fracture test. Data were statistically analysed using the one-way ANOVA. Randomly selected crowns from each group were observed under scanning electron microscopy to view fractured surfaces. Study results indicate that during fatigue, LD crowns had a 100% survival rate; while HL crowns had a 50% failure rate. Fracture resistance of LD crowns was statistically significantly higher than that of HL crowns at the baseline and after fatigue (p ≤ 0.05). However, fatigue did not cause a statistically significant reduction in fracture resistance in both LD and HL groups (p > 0.05). Copings fractured in the LD crowns only and the fracture path was different in both LD and HL groups. According to the results, it was concluded that milled veneer implant-supported hybrid-abutment crowns exhibit significantly higher fracture resistance, and better withstand clinical masticatory loads in the posterior region compared to the hand-layered technique. Also, fatigue application and artificial aging caused no significant strength reduction in both techniques. Clinical significance: Different veneering techniques and materials (hand-layering or milling) act differently to clinical forces and environment and may be prone to early chipping during service. Therefore, practitioners are urged to consider the appropriate veneering protocol for posterior implant-supported hybrid-abutment restorations.