Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat and is increasingly prevalent among enteric pathogens in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the burden of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in older children, adults, and elderly patients with acute diarrhea in LMICs is poorly understood. This study’s aim was to characterize the prevalence of MDR enteric pathogens isolated from patients with acute diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and assess a wide range of risk factors associated with MDR. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of data collected from children over 5 years, adults, and elderly patients with acute diarrhea at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Dhaka Hospital between March 2019 and March 2020. Clinical, historical, socio-environmental information, and a stool sample for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were collected from each patient. Univariate statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence of MDR among enteric pathogens and the association between independent variables and presence of MRDOs among culture-positive patients. Results A total of 1198 patients had pathogens isolated by stool culture with antimicrobial susceptibility results. Among culture-positive patients, the prevalence of MDR was 54.3%. The prevalence of MDR was highest in Aeromonas spp. (81.5%), followed by Campylobacter spp. (72.1%), Vibrio cholerae (28.1%), Shigella spp. (26.2%), and Salmonella spp. (5.2%). Factors associated with having MDRO in multiple logistic regression included longer transport time to hospital (>90 min), greater stool frequency, prior antibiotic use prior to hospital presentation, and non-flush toilet use. However, pseudo-R2 was low 0.086, indicating that other unmeasured variables need to be considered to build a more robust predictive model of MDR. Conclusions MDR enteric pathogens were common in this study population with clinical, historical, and socio-environmental risk factors associated with MDROs. These findings may help guide clinical decision-making regarding antibiotic use and selection in patients at greatest risk of complications due to MDROs. Further prospective research is urgently needed to determine what additional factors place patients at greatest risk of MDRO, and the best strategies to mitigate the spread of MDR in enteric pathogens.