Abstract We aimed to determine if plasma levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are associated with different causes of stroke and correlate with C-reactive protein (CRP), LPS-binding protein (LBP), and the NIH stroke scale (NIHSS). Ischemic stroke (cardioembolic (CE), large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), small vessel occlusion (SVO)), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), transient ischemic attack (TIA) and control subjects were compared (n = 205). Plasma LPS, LTA, CRP, and LBP levels were quantified by ELISA. LPS and CRP levels were elevated in ischemic strokes (CE, LAA, SVO) and ICH compared to controls. LBP levels were elevated in ischemic strokes (CE, LAA) and ICH. LTA levels were increased in SVO stroke compared to TIA but not controls. LPS levels correlated with CRP and LBP levels in stroke and TIA. LPS, LBP and CRP levels positively correlated with the NIHSS and WBC count but negatively correlated with total cholesterol. Plasma LPS and LBP associate with major causes of ischemic stroke and with ICH, whereas LPS/LBP do not associate with TIAs. LTA only associated with SVO stroke. LPS positively correlated with CRP, LBP, and WBC but negatively correlated with cholesterol. Higher LPS levels were associated with worse stroke outcomes.