Male-specifically inherited Y-STRs, harboring the features of haploidy and lack of crossing over, have gained considerable attention in population genetics and forensic investigations. Goldeneye® Y-PLUS kit was a recently developed amplification system focused on the genetic diversity of 36 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) in East Asians. However, no population data and corresponding forensic features were reported in China. Here, 36 Y-STRs were first genotyped in 400 unrelated healthy Tai-Kadai-speaking Bouyei male individuals. A total of 371 alleles and 396 haplotypes could be detected, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0025 to 0.9875. The haplotype diversity, random match probability and discrimination capacity values were 0.9999, 0.0026 and 0.9900, respectively. The gene diversity (GD) of 36 Y-STR loci in the studied group ranged from 0.0248 (DYS645) to 0.9601 (DYS385a/b). Population comparisons between the Guizhou Bouyei and 80 reference groups were performed via the AMOVA, MDS, and phylogenetic relationship reconstruction. The results showed that the population stratification was almost consistent with the geographic distribution and language-family, both among Chinese and worldwide ethnic groups. Our newly genotyped Bouyei samples show a close affinity with other Tai-Kadai-speaking groups in China and Southeast Asia. Our data may provide useful information for paternal lineage in the forensic application and population genetics, as well as evidence for archaeological and historical research.