Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research (2021-02-01)

Single-stage total knee arthroplasty and femoral osteotomy for osteoarthritis with severe supracondylar deformity

  • Jing-yang Sun,
  • Guo-qiang Zhang,
  • Jun-min Shen,
  • Yin-qiao Du,
  • Tie-jian Li,
  • Zong-jie Geng,
  • Yong-gang Zhou,
  • Yan Wang

DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02293-w
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 16, no. 1
pp. 1 – 10

Abstract

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Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis associated with extra-articular deformity (EAD) can confront the arthroplasty surgeons with challenges of bone resection and soft tissue balancing. The aim of this study was to describe a single-stage procedure associating corrective osteotomy with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine the outcome at mid- to long-term follow-up. Methods A total of seven patients (seven knees) with knee osteoarthritis and supracondylar deformity were included in this study. Six patients were female, and one was male, with the median age of 62 years (range, 37-76 years). All patients were treated with single-stage TKA and femoral osteotomy. Osteotomy was fixed with long cemented stem. Hospital of Special Surgery (HSS) scores, collateral ligament laxity, and range of motion (ROM) were clinically evaluated preoperatively and at each follow-up. Radiographic parameters including the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), mechanical proximal tibial angle (mMPTA), and joint line congruence angle (JLCA) were also measured. The occurrence of perioperative complications was recorded. Results The median follow-up time was 91 months (range, 38-104 months). At the last follow-up, all components were stable and no patients required revision. Nonunion of the osteotomy occurred in one patient. In all patients, the lower limb mechanical alignment improved greatly. The mean angle of MAD was restored from 10.49±6.05 cm preoperatively to 1.11±4.97 cm postoperatively. The 90° mLDFA was almost acquired in all cases, with the postoperative value of 90.79±2.40°. After operation, the mMPTA improved from 84.18±6.13° to 91.33±3.13°. The JLCA changed from 2.94±1.61° to −0.71±3.50°. The median HSS score improved from 45 (range, 34-56) preoperatively to 90 (range, 82-97) postoperatively, with the outcome of all patients rated good to excellent. The median ROM improved from 70° (range 0–110°) preoperatively to 105° (range 90–125°) postoperatively. No instability of knee joint was observed. Complications included an intraoperative split fracture of distal femur and one case of wound exudation resulting from fat liquefaction. Conclusions For knee osteoarthritis with femoral supracondylar deformity, single-stage TKA and corrective osteotomy was feasible but technically demanding. The use of long cemented stem for osteotomy fixation can provide reliable rotational control of the bone segments.

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