Nature and Science of Sleep (Dec 2022)

Relationships Among Trajectories of Sleep Disturbance, Depression, and Antiretroviral Therapy in Persons Newly Diagnosed with HIV: A One-and-a-Half-Year Observational Longitudinal Study

  • Chen CC,
  • Liu HY,
  • Chen YC,
  • Ko NY

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 14
pp. 2133 – 2142


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Chang-Chun Chen,1 Hsiao-Ying Liu,2 Yen-Chin Chen,1– 3 Nai-Ying Ko1– 3 1Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Research and Development Committee, Taiwan AIDS Nurse Association, Taipei, TaiwanCorrespondence: Yen-Chin Chen; Nai-Ying Ko, No.138, Sheng Li Road, Tainan, Taiwan, Tel +886 2353535 2019, Fax +886 2377550, Email [email protected]; [email protected]: Sleep disturbance is one of the most prevalent symptoms among persons living with HIV (PLWH). However, the trajectory of sleep patterns in persons newly diagnosed with HIV remains underrecognized. The current study aimed to estimate the trajectory of sleep quality and its associated factors among newly diagnosed PLWH.Patients and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the outpatient clinic of a medical center in southern Taiwan from January 2015 to December 2017. Our primary outcome was sleep quality using the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Participants completed the questionnaire at baseline and at four follow-up interval visits: at 3– 6, 6– 9, 9– 12 and 12– 15 months. A generalized equation estimation (GEE) model was applied to analyze the relationships among poor sleep quality, depression and antiretroviral therapy among persons newly diagnosed with HIV.Results: A total of 217 PLWH were included. The mean age of the sample was 29.3 years, and males (98.6%) were predominant. A total of 56.2% of HIV-infected persons were considered to have poor sleep quality at baseline. After controlling for the confounding effects of demographic characteristics, the following factors increased the risk of poor sleep quality: older age (ß= 0.07, CI: 0.03– 0.11, p=0.001), level of depression (ß= 0.32, CI: 0.27– 0.37, p< 0.001) and detectable viral load (ß= 0.61, CI: 0.04 – 1.18, p= 0.037). However, there was no significant difference in BMI, CD4 counts, HIV viral load, disclosure status, or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that one in two persons with newly diagnosed HIV had poor sleep quality. Being older, having higher levels of depression, and having detectable HIV viral loads were identified as risk factors for developing poor sleep quality in persons living with HIV.Keywords: HIV, sleep disturbance, depression, highly active antiretroviral therapy, HAART