International Journal of Nanomedicine (2019-06-01)

The neurotoxicity induced by engineered nanomaterials

  • Ge D,
  • Du Q,
  • Ran B,
  • Liu X,
  • Wang X,
  • Ma X,
  • Cheng F,
  • Sun B

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 14
pp. 4167 – 4186

Abstract

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Dan Ge,1,2,* Qiqi Du,1,2,* Bingqing Ran,1,2 Xingyu Liu,1,2 Xin Wang,1,2 Xuehu Ma,1 Fang Cheng,1,3 Bingbing Sun1,21State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been widely used in various fields due to their novel physicochemical properties. However, the use of ENMs has led to an increased exposure in humans, and the safety of ENMs has attracted much attention. It is universally acknowledged that ENMs could enter the human body via different routes, eg, inhalation, skin contact, and intravenous injection. Studies have proven that ENMs can cross or bypass the blood–brain barrier and then access the central nervous system and cause neurotoxicity. Until now, diverse in vivo and in vitro models have been developed to evaluate the neurotoxicity of ENMs, and oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and cell death have been identified as being involved. However, due to various physicochemical properties of ENMs and diverse study models in existing studies, it remains challenging to establish the structure-activity relationship of nanomaterials in neurotoxicity. In this paper, we aimed to review current studies on ENM-induced neurotoxicity, with an emphasis on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved. We hope to provide a rational material design strategy for ENMs when they are applied in biomedical or other engineering applications.Keywords: engineered nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, cell death

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