Tantalum (Ta) has excellent prospects in the bone-implant field due to its satisfactory biocompatibility. Two novel Ta lattice structures were designed and printed by selective laser melting (SLM), including the imitation saddle surface (ISS) and the imitation arch bridge telescopic (IABT) structures. Quasi-static compression tests and finite element analysis were adopted to investigate the effects of design parameters on the mechanical properties, deformation modes, and energy absorption of lattice structures. Compared with the typical lattice structure body-centred cubic (BCC) structure, the ISS lattice structure had a higher yield-stress-to-elastic-modulus ratio, and the IABT lattice structure had higher energy absorption. The failure mode of the BCC and ISS lattice structures was shear band formation. The IABT lattice structure showed hierarchical deformation during compression and collapsed with vertical strut buckling. The results indicated that the ISS lattice is the most potential candidate for bone implant applications.