This article analyses foreign and defence policy arguments in the Finnish parliamentary discourses after Finland’s EU accession (2004–2017) related to the concepts of military non-alliance, non-membership of a military alliance, as well as demilitarisation and neutralisation of the Åland Islands. It examines how foreign policy and defence policy perspectives differ in the parliamentary debates and committee reports on the concepts. Finnish security policy has seen a gradual shift since the 1990s from neutrality policy through military non-alliance to the current non-membership of a military alliance. In contrast, the acknowledgement of the demilitarised and neutralised status of the Åland Islands appears to remain extensive despite some critical comments from defence policy actors. The foreign policy approach emphasises a positive instrumental approach and acknowledgement of the concepts, whilst the defence policy approach views the concepts with either acknowledgment or as negative instruments allegedly hampering defence preparation.