BackgroundAndrogen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone treatment for prostate cancer. Despite the clinical benefits, ADT is associated with multiple adverse effects including fatigue. The goal of the study was to examine metabolomic changes to better understand cancer-related fatigue specific to ADT treatment.MethodsA total of 160 plasma samples collected from participants with (+ADT, n = 58) or without neoadjuvant ADT (−ADT, n = 102) prior to radiation therapy for treatment of non-metastatic localized prostate cancer were included in the study. Fatigue and sleep-related impairment were measured using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Plasma metabolites were identified and measured using untargeted ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics analyses. Partial least square discriminant analysis was used to identify discriminant metabolite features, and the diagnostic performance of selected classifiers was quantified using AUROC curve analysis. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed using metabolite sets enrichment analyses.FindingsSteroid hormone biosynthesis pathways, including androstenedione metabolism as well as androgen and estrogen metabolism, were overrepresented by metabolites that significantly discriminated samples in the +ADT from the −ADT group. Additional overrepresented metabolic pathways included amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and carnitine synthesis. Of the metabolites that were significantly different between the groups, steroid hormone biosynthesis metabolites were most significantly correlated with fatigue severity. Sleep-related impairment was strongly correlated with fatigue severity and inversely correlated with ADT-induced reduction in androsterone sulfate.ConclusionsPatients with non-metastatic prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT prior to radiation therapy reported relatively more severe fatigue. Increased fatigue in this population may be attributable to sleep-related impairment associated with alterations in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Findings in this study provide a basis for further research of changes in sleep patterns and their role in this specific subcategory of cancer-related fatigue caused by the treatment.