Forest Systems (Dec 2014)

European Mixed Forests: definition and research perspectives

  • Andres Bravo-Oviedo,
  • Hans Pretzsch,
  • Christian Ammer,
  • Ernesto Andenmatten,
  • Anna Barbati,
  • Susana Barreiro,
  • Peter Brang,
  • Felipe Bravo,
  • Lluis Coll,
  • Piermaria Corona,
  • Jan den Ouden,
  • Mark J. Ducey,
  • David I. Forrester,
  • Marek Giergiczny,
  • Jette B. Jacobsen,
  • Jerzy Lesinski,
  • Magnus Löf,
  • William L. Mason,
  • Bratislav Matovic,
  • Marek Metslaid,
  • François Morneau,
  • Jurga Motiejunaite,
  • Conor O'Reilly,
  • Maciej Pach,
  • Quentin Ponette,
  • Miren del Rio,
  • Ian Short,
  • Jens Peter Skovsgaard,
  • Mario Soliño,
  • Peter Spathelf,
  • Hubert Sterba,
  • Dejan Stojanovic,
  • Katarina Strelcova,
  • Miroslav Svoboda,
  • Kris Verheyen,
  • Nikolas von Lüpke,
  • Tzvetan Zlatanov

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 23, no. 3
pp. 518 – 533


Read online

Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests.Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide.Material and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests.Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients). The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time.The research perspectives identified are (i) species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii) the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests.Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.Keywords: COST Action; EuMIXFOR; mixed-species forests; admixtures of species.