Formulation and Characterization of Quercetin-loaded Oil in Water Nanoemulsion and Evaluation of Hypocholesterolemic Activity in Rats

Nutrients. 2019;11(2):244 DOI 10.3390/nu11020244

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Nutrients

ISSN: 2072-6643 (Online)

Publisher: MDPI AG

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Home economics: Nutrition. Foods and food supply

Country of publisher: Switzerland

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB, XML

 

AUTHORS


Hye-Yeon Son (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea)

Mak-Soon Lee (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea)

Eugene Chang (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea)

Seog-Young Kim (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea)

Bori Kang (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea)

Hyunmi Ko (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea)

In-Hwan Kim (Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea)

Qixin Zhong (Department of Food Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-6196, USA)

Young-Hee Jo (Kolmar BNH CO., LTd 2-15, Sandan-gil, Jeonui-myeon, Sejong-si 30003, Korea)

Chong-Tai Kim (R&D Center, EastHill Corporation, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16642, Korea)

Yangha Kim (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 11 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Due to poor water solubility and high susceptibility to chemical degradation, the applications of quercetin have been limited. This study investigated the effects of pH on the formation of quercetin-loaded nanoemulsion (NQ) and compared the hypocholesterolemic activity between quercetin and NQ to utilize the quercetin as functional food ingredient. NQ particle size exhibited a range of 207–289 nm with polydispersity index range (<0.47). The encapsulation efficiency increased stepwise from 56 to 92% as the pH increased from 4.0 to 9.0. Good stability of NQ was achieved in the pH range of 6.5–9.0 during 3-month storage at 21 and 37 °C. NQ displayed higher efficacy in reducing serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and increasing the release of bile acid into feces in rats fed high-cholesterol diet, compared to quercetin alone. NQ upregulated hepatic gene expression involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol efflux, such as cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1 (ABCG1). These results suggest at least partial involvement of hepatic bile acid synthesis and fecal cholesterol excretion in nanoemulsion quercetin-mediated beneficial effect on lipid abnormalities.