Context: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. India has the second highest number of individuals with diabetes in the world and these numbers are predicted to reach 120 million by 2045. Environmental exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide has been identified as a risk factor for diabetes However, to date, no published studies have examined the association of indoor air pollution (IAP) and diabetes in developing countries such as India, where traditional biomass fuels are still used for cooking and heating. Aims: To evaluate the association between IAP and diabetes mellitus. Settings and Design: The data collected through India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) in 2005–2006 were queried and analyzed. Materials and Methods: This study examined the association between IAP and diabetes among women aged 45 years and above using data from the NFHS-3. Statistical Analysis: Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between diabetes and type of fuel, calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for confounders. Results: Less than 1/3 of the 9,502 (28%) participants were overweight or obese and 304 women reported having diabetes. A statistically significant association between solid fuel use and diabetes in women >45 years of age was observed (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.08–2.34). Conclusions: This study is the first attempt to determine the relationship between diabetes and IAP; more robust population-based cohort studies are needed to further explore this association.