Journal of Water and Climate Change (Apr 2022)

Impact of climate-induced extreme events and demand–supply gap on water resources in Bangladesh

  • M. Rafiqul Islam

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 13, no. 4
pp. 1878 – 1899


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Agriculture, domestic users, and industry rely on water resources systems for fulfilling water demand, while water resources systems face both climate-induced extreme events and management and governance problems. These constraints lead to a mismatch between demand and supply of water for those sectors. This study applies central tendency and variability to analyze data and a mixed methods approach to interpret the result. From 1999 to 2019, the growth rates of population, gross domestic product, and urban population are ­1.354, 6.084, and 3.70%, respectively, contributing to increased water demand. However, the average groundwater depletion increased from 2.455 km3 (1989–1990) to 4.9016 km3, while the average flood-affected areas enhanced by 8,644 km2 in 2014–2018 compared to 1987–1991. Furthermore, salt-affected areas incremented by 222,810 ha in 2009 contrasted to 1973, whereas the mean wind speed of cyclones increased by 30.02 km in 2015–2020 compared to 1988–1995. The mean sea-level rise increased by 16.8 and 169.2 cm in 1995–2000 compared to 1979–1983 in Cox's Bazar and the Char Changa station, respectively. The Mann–Kendall test was applied to detect the trend. This study urges policymakers, water experts, and academics to promote rainwater harvesting that is sustainable to govern rainwater and mitigate water and economic poverty. HIGHLIGHTS The study used secondary data that quantify the water demand and supply.; How is the demand and supply gap created?; How are climatic extreme events responsible for this gap?;