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Heterozygous de novo and inherited mutations in the smooth muscle actin (ACTG2) gene underlie megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

PLoS Genetics. 2014;10(3):e1004258 DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004258

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: PLoS Genetics

ISSN: 1553-7390 (Print); 1553-7404 (Online)

Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

LCC Subject Category: Science: Biology (General): Genetics

Country of publisher: United States

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML

 

AUTHORS


Michael F Wangler

Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui

Tomasz Gambin

Samantha Penney

Timothy Moss

Atul Chopra

Frank J Probst

Fan Xia

Yaping Yang

Steven Werlin

Ieva Eglite

Liene Kornejeva

Carlos A Bacino

Dustin Baldridge

Jeff Neul

Efrat Lev Lehman

Austin Larson

Joke Beuten

Donna M Muzny

Shalini Jhangiani

Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics

Richard A Gibbs

James R Lupski

Arthur Beaudet

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 26 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes γ2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease.