Faslnāmah-i Pizhūhish/Nāmah-i Iqtisādī (Apr 2019)

Comparative Analysis of Strategies for Energy Intensity Reduction in Iran (Dynamic System of Energy Price-Energy Supply-Economic Growth Approach)

  • Abdolrasoul Ghasemi ,
  • Atefeh Taklif,
  • Teymour Mohammadi,
  • fereshteh mohammadian

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 19, no. 73
pp. 1 – 45


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This study is an attempt to present and numerically simulate a dynamic system of energy price-energy supply-economic growth to perform a comparative analysis of strategies for energy intensity reduction in Iran. To achieve this purpose, a nonlinear differential equation system is designed and the data for total domestic energy production, non-oil GDP and energy price index during period 1992-2014 are used to estimate the parameters of system by means of whale optimization algorithm. In the next stage, four strategies (exploration of new energy sources and imports, moving towards a self-regulatory market, industrial restructuring, and adoption of new energy production and price policies) are addressed based on aforementioned system. The results indicate that the first three strategies will stabilize the energy market, but the fourth strategy will only drive the system into a cyclical shock state. The effects of different individual and combined strategies on energy intensity are also investigated. The results show that under a reasonable control power, these strategies can reduce energy intensity, but an unplanned increase in control power leads to reverse results. As for the energy intensity stabilization under these strategies, the lowest energy intensity is achieved by the third strategy and the lowest time to stabilize energy intensity is under the second strategy. It should be noted that the comprehensive strategy (combination of the first three strategies) outperforms individual strategies both in energy intensity stabilization and energy intensity reduction. Accordingly, implementation of a comprehensive strategy or any of the individual strategies with reasonable control power rather that unconsidered and strict application of a specific strategy, is the best choice for reduction of the national energy intensity in Iran.