The purpose of the article is to review some aspects of pedagogical education establishment in Russia in the first half of the 19th century. The author outlines that the period of the reign of Emperor Alexander I was characterized by a large-scale educational reform, the purpose of which was to create a single multi-level education system. Its implementation required a large number of teachers. It is emphasized that the solution of the problem of training teachers for gymnasiums was entrusted to the universities. Gymnasium, in turn, had to prepare teachers for primary schools. During the study the following methods and materials were used: analysis of documentary sources, assessments on the development of Russian education, published in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. It is concluded that state structures attached great importance to the system of pedagogical education. Measures on training teachers for secondary and primary schools were taken. It is pointed out that the most important place has begun to be occupied by activities related to the training of teachers for the primary public education system. The existing system of pedagogical education was developed during the reign of Nicholas I. Its most important component was the Main Pedagogical Institute established in Saint Petersburg.