Water (2019-10-01)

Solute Transport and Transformation in an Intermittent, Headwater Mountain Stream with Diurnal Discharge Fluctuations

  • Adam S. Ward,
  • Marie J. Kurz,
  • Noah M. Schmadel,
  • Julia L.A. Knapp,
  • Phillip J. Blaen,
  • Ciaran J. Harman,
  • Jennifer D. Drummond,
  • David M. Hannah,
  • Stefan Krause,
  • Angang Li,
  • Eugenia Marti,
  • Alexander Milner,
  • Melinda Miller,
  • Kerry Neil,
  • Stephen Plont,
  • Aaron I. Packman,
  • Nathan I. Wisnoski,
  • Steven M. Wondzell,
  • Jay P. Zarnetske

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112208
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 11, no. 11
p. 2208

Abstract

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Time-variable discharge is known to control both transport and transformation of solutes in the river corridor. Still, few studies consider the interactions of transport and transformation together. Here, we consider how diurnal discharge fluctuations in an intermittent, headwater stream control reach-scale solute transport and transformation as measured with conservative and reactive tracers during a period of no precipitation. One common conceptual model is that extended contact times with hyporheic zones during low discharge conditions allows for increased transformation of reactive solutes. Instead, we found tracer timescales within the reach were related to discharge, described by a single discharge-variable StorAge Selection function. We found that Resazurin to Resorufin (Raz-to-Rru) transformation is static in time, and apparent differences in reactive tracer were due to interactions with different ages of storage, not with time-variable reactivity. Overall we found reactivity was highest in youngest storage locations, with minimal Raz-to-Rru conversion in waters older than about 20 h of storage in our study reach. Therefore, not all storage in the study reach has the same potential biogeochemical function and increasing residence time of solute storage does not necessarily increase reaction potential of that solute, contrary to prevailing expectations.

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