BMC Public Health (Aug 2020)

An application of the theory of planned behavior to self-care in patients with hypertension

  • Gholamreza Pourmand,
  • Leila Doshmangir,
  • Ayat Ahmadi,
  • Mohammad Noori,
  • Atiyeh Rezaeifar,
  • Rahil Mashhadi,
  • Rezvan Aziminia,
  • Amirhossein Pourmand,
  • Vladimir S. Gordeev

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 20, no. 1
pp. 1 – 8


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Abstract Background Self-care behaviors and positive changes in lifestyle are essential for successful hypertension control. We used a behavioral model based on the theory of planned behavior to assess which factors influence self-care behaviors for controlling hypertension. Methods In this cross-sectional study, five hundred patients with at leastaone-year history of diagnosed hypertension participated in this study. The data collection tool was designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the main parameters. Results For self-care behaviors, ninety-six (19.2%) and forty-five (9.1%) participants had good knowledge and acceptable behavior(≥8 out of 10 points). Having perceived behavioral control regarding quitting smoking and alcohol intake was associated with the patient’s intention and behavior [b:1.283 ± .095 and b:1.59 ± .014 (p < .001)]. Having perceived behavioral control over the other self-care behaviors had a positive effect on the intention in female patients [b: .885 ± .442 (p = .045)]. Subjective norms had a positive effect on behavioral intention in younger patients [b:4.52 ± 2.24 (P = .04)]. Conclusions Group-specific behavioral barriers are important when improving self-care behaviors in patients with hypertension. Perceived control over self-care behaviors is more important in vulnerable patients, such as the elderly and women.