The authors outline that the main trend in modern education, both in Russia and in the world as a whole, is the digitalization and informatization of the educational process. This leads to disagreements in understanding the potential of this phenomenon, as the main factor, affecting the comprehensive and systematic development and self-development of a modern student’s personality. In turn, this is due to the diverse interpretations of the terms, included in this area of the knowledge, by other sciences without taking into account the specifics of the educational process, which prompted the authors to undertake the study. The purpose of the article is to review the basic concepts, related to the informatization of modern education in Russia, as well as to describe the trends in the use of information and communication technologies in the educational process, their role in the formation of the information and educational environment of an educational institution. Methods. The main research method is the analysis of literary sources and regulations, related to the field of information technologies application in education, on the basis of which the authors consider and generalize different concepts. Results. Based on the results of the study, conclusions are drawn about the importance of information and communication technologies and the information and educational environment as the main factors in the modernization of the educational process. However, the importance of combining the traditional teaching methods with methods, based on the use of innovative technologies without a fundamental change in the educational paradigm was emphasized.