The article is concerned with analyzing the trends of the demographic changes that have occurred in Ukraine over the past 14 years. The most important aspects of the demographic changes in the modern world have been expounded. The conception of demographic transitions has been clarified from the perspective of change in the natural reproduction of population. The distinction between migration and natural changes of population in the country has been explained. The main problems related to the significant downsizing of the Ukrainian population over the past three years have been provided and described. Influence of the main economic factors on the indicators of population change has been considered, a dependence between these factors has been determined. The topical directions, allowing to regulate the dynamics of population size, have been identified and described.