Biomedicines (Nov 2021)

Effectiveness of Biofunctionalization of Titanium Surfaces with Phosphonic Acid

  • Ainhoa Aresti,
  • Javier Aragoneses,
  • Nansi López-Valverde,
  • Ana Suárez,
  • Juan Manuel Aragoneses

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 9, no. 11
p. 1663


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Surface functionalization of dental implant surfaces has been a developing field in biomaterial research. This study aimed to obtain self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using carboxyethylphosphonic acid on the surface of titanium (Ti) screws, and assessed the surface characteristics, biomechanical, and cellular behavior on the obtained specimens. This study had three groups, i.e., a control (untreated screws), a test group treated with phosphonic acid, and a third group with treated acid and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) for in vitro analysis of cell lines. The assessed parameters included surface wettability, surface characteristics using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), protein immobilization, and cellular behavior of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue (MSCat cells). For surface wettability, a Welch test was performed to compare the contact angles between control (67 ± 1.83) and test (18.84 ± 0.72) groups, and a difference was observed in the mean measurements, but was not statistically significant. The SEM analysis showed significant surface roughness on the test screws and the cellular behavior of fibroblasts, and MSCat cells were significantly improved in this group, with fibroblasts having a polygonal shape with numerous vesicles and MSCat cells stable and uniformly coating the test Ti surface. Surface biofunctionalization of Ti surfaces with phosphonic acid showed promising results in this study, but remains to be clinically validated for its applications.