AIM: To observe the influence of phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation on retinal thickness changes of macular center fovea using optical coherence tomography(OCT)in cataract patients.METHODS: Surgical eyes of 60 cases with cataract were as surgery group, the contralateral eye were as controls group. There was no complication before and during the surgery.Macular thickness was examined by OCT preoperatively and 1wk, 1, 3, and 6mo after surgery.The retinal thickness changes of macular center fovea were compared after surgery. The SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis.The paired t-test and variance analysis were used in two groups before and after surgery for relevant statistical data analysis(α=0.05).RESULTS: In surgery group, the retinal thickness changes of macular center fovea at 1wk, 1, 3mo after treatment had significant differences compared with preoperation(PP>0.05). The retinal thickness changes of macular center fovea was significantly higher than other groups at 1mo after treatment(PP values were without statistical differences(P>0.05). There were no statistical significant differences on retinal thickness of macular center fovea between two groups before and 6mo after surgery(P>0.05), while there were significant differences at 1wk, 1 and 3mo after surgery(PCONCLUSION: The retinal thickness changes of macular center fovea increases significantly after phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. In a few of cases appear macular edema, but the majority of patients can be restored, prognosis is good.