Do premenopausal female systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have a low incidence of hyperuricaemia (HU) as healthy premenopausal females? As of yet, there have been few studies. This study aims to investigate the serum uric acid (UA) levels of premenopausal female SLE patients and the associated clinical risk factors. 107 premenopausal female SLE patients were divided into two groups: the high UA SLE group (n = 45) and the normal UA SLE group (n = 62). In total, 50 age-matched healthy premenopausal females served as the control group. Serum UA concentration, kidney damage index, lupus index, disease activity score of lupus and serum lipid index were collected and compared between the SLE subgroups. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyse the association of high UA levels with clinical features. The mean UA level of the SLE group was significantly higher than that of the control group (509.73 ± 150.28 μmol/L vs 296.78 ± 69.87 μmol/L, P < 0.001), as was the incidence of HU (42.06% vs 14.00%, P = 0.01). The UA levels of the high UA SLE group and the normal UA SLE group were 515.91 ± 120.64 μmol/L and 245.71 ± 63.18 μmol/L, respectively, which was statistically significant ( P < 0.001). None of the patients with HU had current or previous gout attacks. The frequency of patients with renal manifestations in the high UA SLE group was significantly higher than that in the normal UA SLE group (χ 2 = 26.278, P < 0.001). In the SLE group, the medications azathioprine and cyclosporine were not associated with HU ( P = 0.689), as analysed by binary linear regression. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that urinary blood ( P = 0.048), creatinine ( P = 0.016), triglycerides ( P = 0.029), peripheral white blood cells ( P = 0.007) and renal manifestation ( P < 0.001) were associated with HU in the SLE group. Our results demonstrate that premenopausal SLE patients had higher levels of UA than healthy premenopausal females, which may be associated with potential or existing renal damage.