Biomedicines (Dec 2021)

Inhibitory Effects of Astaxanthin on CML-HSA-Induced Inflammatory and RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenic Gene Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells

  • A. N. M. Mamun-Or-Rashid,
  • Tanzima Tarannum Lucy,
  • Masayuki Yagi,
  • Yoshikazu Yonei

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10, no. 1
p. 54


Read online

Objective: Elevated levels of serum Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), a well-known advanced glycation end-product (AGE), were observed in patients with inflammation or osteoporosis. Astaxanthin was reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of commercially available dietary supplement AstaReal ACTR (ASR) capsule content as astaxanthin on CML-HSA-induced inflammatory and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenic gene expression. Methods: RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were stimulated with CML-HSA to trigger inflammatory gene expression and treated with either a vehicle control or varied concentrations of astaxanthin. Inflammatory gene expression was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or qPCR. We triggered osteoclastogenesis using RANKL, and osteoclastogenic gene expression was measured through tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, staining, immunofluorescence, and qPCR analyses. Results: CML-HSA showed a stimulatory effect on inflammatory gene expression, and astaxanthin reduced the expression by at least two-fold. The levels of autoinflammatory gene expression were reduced by astaxanthin. The RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was significantly inhibited by astaxanthin, with reductions in the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), the expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 1), multinucleated cell formation, and the expression of mature osteoclast marker genes. Conclusion: Astaxanthin has potential as a remedy for CML-HSA-induced inflammation and RANKL-induced excessive bone loss.