The problem geoecological aspects of weather and climatic extremes that violate the life of the population are discussed in article. The most important medical and ecological consequences of extreme weather conditions for the population of Central Russia and several European countries are considered. The author's view of geoecological processes arising as a result of modern fluctuations in the earth's climate system (atmosphere - ocean - land - cryosphere) is revealed. The idea of the greenhouse effect as a factor of modern climate change is discussed. A conceptual position on the future climate system and the leading role of solar activity in the environmental dynamics is formulated in article.