Neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an early event of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), and considered to be a key pathologic factor in the progression of AD. The targeted delivery of the antioxidants to mitochondria of injured neurons in brain is a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. A safe and effective drug delivery system (DDS) which is able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and target neuronal mitochondria is necessary. Recently, bioactive materials-based DDS has been widely investigated for the treatment of AD. Herein, we developed macrophage (MA) membrane-coated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) by attaching rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG29) and triphenylphosphine cation (TPP) molecules to the surface of MA membrane (RVG/TPP-MASLNs) for functional antioxidant delivery to neuronal mitochondria. According to the results, MA membranes camouflaged the SLNs from being eliminated by RES-rich organs by inheriting the immunological characteristics of macrophages. The unique properties of the DDS after decoration with RVG29 on the surface was demonstrated by the ability to cross the BBB and the selective targeting to neurons. After entering the neurons in CNS, TPP further lead the DDS to mitochondria driven by electric charge. The Genistein (GS)- encapsulated DDS (RVG/TPP-MASLNs-GS) exhibited the most favorable effects on reliveing AD symptoms in vitro and in vivo by the synergies gained from the combination of MA membranes, RVG29 and TPP. These results demonstrated a promising therapeutic candidate for delaying the progression of AD via neuronal mitochondria-targeted delivery by the designed biomimetic nanosystems.