Viruses (Mar 2019)

Molecular Characterization and Evolutionary Analyses of <i>Carnivore Protoparvovirus 1</i> <i>NS1</i> Gene

  • Francesco Mira,
  • Marta Canuti,
  • Giuseppa Purpari,
  • Vincenza Cannella,
  • Santina Di Bella,
  • Leonardo Occhiogrosso,
  • Giorgia Schirò,
  • Gabriele Chiaramonte,
  • Santino Barreca,
  • Patrizia Pisano,
  • Antonio Lastra,
  • Nicola Decaro,
  • Annalisa Guercio

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 11, no. 4
p. 308


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Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 is the etiological agent of a severe disease of terrestrial carnivores. This unique specie encompasses canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV). Studies widely analyzed the main capsid protein (VP2), but limited information is available on the nonstructural genes (NS1/NS2). This paper analyzed the NS1 gene sequence of FPLV and CPV strains collected in Italy in 2009–2017, along with worldwide related sequences. Differently from VP2, only one NS1 amino-acid residue (248) clearly and constantly distinguished FPLV from CPV-2, while five possible convergent amino-acid changes were observed that may affect the functional domains of the NS1. Some synonymous mutation in NS1 were non-synonymous in NS2 and vice versa. No evidence for recombination between the two lineages was found, and the predominance of negative selection pressure on NS1 proteins was observed, with low and no overlap between the two lineages in negatively and positively selected codons, respectively. More sites were under selection in the CPV-2 lineage. NS1 phylogenetic analysis showed divergent evolution between FPLV and CPV, and strains were clustered mostly by country and year of detection. We highlight the importance of obtaining the NS1/NS2 coding sequence in molecular epidemiology investigations.