Abstract Background Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like DNA decorated with antimicrobial proteins, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), which are extruded from activated neutrophils. Although NETs are essential in innate immunity, an excessive formation of NETs has adverse effects, e.g., induction of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), to the hosts. Since ANCA can induce NET formation in the primed neutrophils, a positive feedback loop can be formed between NETs and ANCA, which is called “ANCA-NETs vicious cycle.” Case presentation A 79-year-old Japanese woman developed hydralazine-induced pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with MPO-ANCA. Although the illness improved after cessation of hydralazine, MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis relapsed 16 months later. Remission was achieved 5 months after beginning of administration of prednisone. In order to determine the involvement of ANCA-NETs vicious cycle in this patient, we examined NET degradation and induction activities in sera obtained at the disease onset (Serum A; MPO-ANCA, 107 IU/ml), at relapse (Serum B; MPO-ANCA, 195 IU/ml), at 3 months after treatment (Serum C; MPO-ANCA, 4.5 IU/ml), and at remission (Serum D; MPO-ANCA, 2.4 IU/ml). NET degradation activity was low in the all sera. NET induction activity was high in Sera A, B, and C but not in D. Additionally, we demonstrated the presence of anti-NET antibody (ANETA) in Sera B and C but not in A or D. Conclusions The collective findings suggest NET induction potential of ANETA in the present patient and that the ANETA could contribute to the enhancement of NETs resulting in amplification of the ANCA-NETs vicious cycle.