This article consists of two parts. The first presents the concepts of creation and operation of virtual organizations, taking into account the dominant approaches and perspectives - structural and procesual. The activity of these organizations is possible since the rapid development of the Internet and the dissemination of information and communication technologies. (ICT), which is the transition from an industrial to a knowledge economy and information society. The second part provides an overview of selected empirical studies conducted in these structures, including the key issues for their formation and development. Based on a review of available empirical research conclusions are drawn regarding the operation of virtual organizations in the contemporary socio-economic reality.