Differential regional and subtype-specific vulnerability of enteric neurons to mitochondrial dysfunction.

PLoS ONE. 2011;6(11):e27727 DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0027727

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: PLoS ONE

ISSN: 1932-6203 (Online)

Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

LCC Subject Category: Medicine | Science

Country of publisher: United States

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML

 

AUTHORS


Andreu Viader

Elizabeth C Wright-Jin

Bhupinder P S Vohra

Robert O Heuckeroth

Jeffrey Milbrandt

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 24 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central mediator of disease progression in diverse neurodegenerative diseases that often present with prominent gastrointestinal abnormalities. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in these disorders is related, at least in part, to defects in the enteric nervous system (ENS). The role of mitochondrial deficits in ENS neurodegeneration and their relative contribution to gastrointestinal dysfunction, however, are unclear. To better understand how mitochondrial abnormalities in the ENS influence enteric neurodegeneration and affect intestinal function, we generated mice (Tfam-ENSKOs) with impaired mitochondrial metabolism in enteric neurons and glia through the targeted deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A gene (Tfam). Tfam-ENSKO mice were initially viable but, at an early age, they developed severe gastrointestinal motility problems characterized by intestinal pseudo-obstruction resulting in premature death. This gastrointestinal dysfunction was caused by extensive, progressive neurodegeneration of the ENS involving both neurons and glia. Interestingly, mitochondrial defects differentially affected specific subpopulations of enteric neurons and regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Mitochondrial deficiency-related neuronal and glial loss was most prominent in the proximal small intestine, but the first affected neurons, nitrergic inhibitory neurons, had the greatest losses in the distal small intestine. This regional and subtype-specific variability in susceptibility to mitochondrial defects resulted in an imbalance of inhibitory and excitatory neurons that likely accounts for the observed phenotype in Tfam-ENSKO mice. Mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore, is likely to be an important driving force of neurodegeneration in the ENS and contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms in people with neurodegenerative disorders.