This study examines the expression of IL-17A-secreting cells within the inflamed synovium and the relationship to in vivo joint hypoxia measurements.IL-17A expression was quantified in synovial tissue (ST), serum and synovial fluid (SF) by immunohistochemistry and MSD-plex assays. IL-6 SF and serum levels were measured by MSD-plex assays. Dual immunofluorescence for IL-17A was quantified in ST CD15+ cells (neutrophils), Tryptase+ (mast cells) and CD4+ (T cells). Synovial tissue oxygen (tpO(2)) levels were measured under direct visualisation at arthroscopy. Synovial infiltration was assessed using immunohistochemistry for cell specific markers. Peripheral blood mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells were isolated and exposed to normoxic or 3% hypoxic conditions. IL-17A and IL-6 were quantified as above in culture supernatants.IL-17A expression was localised to mononuclear and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in inflamed ST. Dual immunoflourescent staining co-localised IL-17A expression with CD15+ neutrophils Tryptase+ mast cells and CD4+T cells. % IL-17A positivity was highest on CD15+ neutrophils, followed by mast cells and then CD4+T-cells. The number of IL-17A-secreting PMN cells significantly correlated with sublining CD68 expression (r = 0.618, p20 mmHg, showed those with low tp0(2)<20 mmHg had significantly higher IL-17A+ mononuclear cells with no difference observed for PMNs. Exposure of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells to 3% hypoxia, significantly induced IL-6 in mononuclear cells, but had no effect on IL-17A expression in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells.This study demonstrates IL-17A expression is localised to several immune cell subtypes within the inflamed synovial tissue, further supporting the concept that IL-17A is a key mediator in inflammatory arthritis. The association of hypoxia with Il-17A expression appears to be indirect, probably through hypoxia-induced pro-inflammatory pathways and leukocyte influx within the joint microenvironment.