Infection and Drug Resistance (Nov 2023)

Analysis of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children in Shenyang, China, 2017–2021

  • Sun J,
  • Fan L,
  • Zhao Y,
  • Wu H,
  • Li R,
  • Tian Y,
  • Cheng M,
  • Ma X,
  • Ma Y,
  • Yang X,
  • Shen A,
  • Yu Y,
  • Chen Y

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 16
pp. 6983 – 6998


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Jiao Sun,1,* Lichao Fan,2,* Yanping Zhao,3,* Haoyu Wu,2 Ran Li,2 Yao Tian,2 Moxin Cheng,2 Xin Ma,1 Yingying Ma,1 Xinru Yang,1 Adong Shen,4 Yanhong Yu,1 Yu Chen2 1Tuberculosis Laboratory, Shenyang Tenth People’s Hospital/Shenyang Chest Hospital, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Tuberculosis, Shenyang Tenth People’s Hospital/Shenyang Chest Hospital, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; 4National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workCorrespondence: Yanhong Yu; Yu Chen, Email [email protected]; [email protected]: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in children seriously threatens TB control. Information on the epidemiology and characteristics of DR-TB in children in China is limited. We studied data in Shenyang Tenth People’s Hospital to understand the DR-TB epidemiology in children in Shenyang.Design or Methods: We retrospectively analyzed drug resistance testing data of pediatric TB patients between 2017 and 2021, and included 2976 clinically-diagnosed pediatric TB patients. We described the epidemiology of DR-TB and analyzed the trends of DR-TB incidence. The Kappa value was calculated to assess the agreement between MGIT 960 DST and Xpert MTB/RIF for detecting rifampicin resistance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for DR-TB in pediatric patients.Results: Of the 2976 TB patients, 1076 were confirmed by MGIT 960 culture and/or Xpert MTB/RIF. Among the 806 patients identified by MGIT 960 culture, 232 cases (28.78%) were DR-TB. Resistance to the six drugs was in the following order: streptomycin (21.09%), isoniazid (9.35%), rifampin (15.01%), levofloxacin (6.20%), ethambutol (4.22%), and amikacin (3.23%). Alarmingly, 12.90% were MDR-TB (104/806), including 28 (3.47%) pre-XDR-TB. Of the 1076 pediatric TB patients, 295 (27.4%) developed DR-TB to any one drug (including 69 rifampicin-resistant cases identified by Xpert MTB/RIF only). No difference was found in the incidence of pediatric DR-TB between 2017 and 2021. Among 376 patients who were positive for both methods, using the MGIT 960 DST results as the gold standard, Xpert MTB/RIF’s sensitivity for detecting rifampicin resistance was 91.38% and its specificity was 94.65%.Conclusion: Between 2017 and 2021, the DR-TB incidence in children remained unchanged in Shenyang. RR-TB, MDR-TB, and even Pre-XDR-TB require attention in children with drug-resistant TB. Xpert MTB/RIF helped to detect more rifampicin-resistant pediatric patients; thus Xpert MTB/RIF should be widely used as an important complementary tool to detect rifampicin-resistant TB in children.Keywords: tuberculosis, drug-resistant, children, rifampicin, Xpert MTB/RIF, drug susceptibility testing