This research summarizes the analytical and experimental results of heat-transfer processes influence on defects formation during sapphire crystal growth by horizontal directed crystallization method (HDC). The shape of solid-melt interface significantly influences the process of sapphire crystals growth by this method. We receive the Stefan problem solution for sapphire crystals growth. It allows investigating the crystal growth process and the related factors (thermal stresses on different stages of growth process), their influence on defects formation. We investigate the main reasons for the formation of defective structures of the solid phase of sapphire crystals and the influence of thermal unit construction, the crystal geometry on the quality of the resulting sapphire crystal. We study the structure formation process, impurity distribution, and the nature of the defects in the crystal during it growth.